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The shoe : from its design to its marketing, including its manufacture, quality control and fit, CTC supports you in all stages of its production.

Shoes / Footwear: physical testing

Physical tests in Footwear: generalities and particularities.

The shoe protects the foot from the roughness of the ground and climatic variations. Despite this, the foot is subject to significant physical stresses: it ensures balance in a static position, allows movement over various terrain, flat or uneven, up and down stairs, and responds to spontaneous acceleration.

During an activity, the shoe must respect the movements of the foot: it must neither oppose, nor promote or amplify its natural movements.

All of these consumer expectations for a shoe are incorporated by the manufacturer into what we call the fit. The footwear will be defined by the design office, and described in the functional specifications of the product. This integrates the specific needs related to the individual and the activity.

To be comfortable to wear, the shoe must best match the shape of the foot, but must also meet the requirements of the activity for which it is intended. There is thus a great diversity of ranges of shoes. We find the ranges segmenting the ages (child, woman, man and senior shoe), or the shoes classified by activity (sports shoe, safety shoe, etc.).

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Making a shoe

The consumer cannot imagine the number of operations necessary to make a shoe, from the thought of the stylist or designer, to putting the finished products in the store. Indeed, this process sees the intervention of a multitude of know-how, as well as a collaboration of the manufacturer with many suppliers.

Shoe physical testing : Shoe manufacturing flowchart

Shoe manufacturing flowchart

 

There are several steps to creating a shoe:

  • The design and production of the shape, which gives the aesthetic of the toe, the height of the heel and the fit;
  • The design of the model flat and in volume, with the choice of materials and colors;
  • The drawing of the lines of the model on the solid form;
  • Details on the type of edge finish, and assembly methods, are also given for the upper.
  • The drawing and details concerning the sole are also provided by the stylists or designers.

 

Elements of the shoe

 

A shoe can be broken down into three main parts:

  • The upper most often made up of the upper and the lining;
  • The insole covered with a clean sock;
  • The sole more and more often made up of several materials.

To create, assemble and format these three elements, you must first create a fourth element: the last. The volume of the last approaches that of the foot.

Footwear physical testing : Elements of shoe

CTC shoe expertise, a full range of footwear services

CTC, professional economic development committee for the footwear, leather goods, gloves and leather fashion sector, is the privileged interlocutor for all production, design, quality control and innovation issues in the footwear sector. The scope of our services affects all stages in the life of a shoe, from specifications to recycling.

 

 

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Recommended physical tests in footwear

CTC recommends a series of basic tests in order to be able to qualify and evaluate the shoe. Here is the recommended test pack below.

RECOMMENDED TESTS

Component 

Test designation 

Standard

TOP

Tear Resistance

ISO 17696

LINING 

Color resistance to translational friction (wet) 

ISO 17700

OUTSOLE

Flexural strength 

EN ISO 17707

Abrasion resistance

EN 12770
ISO 20871

FULL SHOE 

Resistance of upper / sole adhesion 

EN ISO 17708

HEEL

Impact resistance (pendulum sheep)

CTC Method CTC-P-CH-016

 

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Additional physical tests on shoes

These additional tests are carried out on the different components of the shoe. The test that we recommend is carried out in accordance with a French, European or international standard.

Select the component to find out the corresponding tests and standards:

  • Labeling
  • Letaher upper
  • Textile upper
  • Lining
  • Insole or cleanliness
  • Outsole
  • Bonbout
  • Heel
  • Accessories
  • Whole Shoe
  • Performance

Labeling

Designation of the test Standard
Legal information DIR 94-11 CEE

Leather upper

Designation of the test  Standard

Tear resistance

ISO 17696

Tensile strength and elongation at break

ISO 17706

Flexural strength (dry and wet) 

NF EN ISO 17694

Resistance of stopping points

NF G62.013

Colours Resistance to translational friction (dry and wet) 

ISO 17700

Water resistance (penetration) 

ISO 17702

Determination of permeability and absorption of water vapor 

EN 13515
ISO 17699

Determination of animal species

Microscope

Textile upper

Designation of the test  Standard

Tear resistance

ISO 17696

Tensile strength and elongation at break

ISO 17706

Flexural strength (dry) 

NF EN ISO 17694

Resistance of stopping points 

NF G62.013

Colours Resistance to translational friction (dry and wet) 

ISO 17700

Water resistance (penetration) 

ISO 17702

Determination of permeability and absorption of water vapor 

EN 13515
ISO 17699

Lining

Designation of the test  Standard

Tear resistance

ISO 17696

Abrasion resistance

EN 13520
ISO 17704

Colours Resistance to translational friction (wet) 

ISO 17700

Determination of permeability and absorption of water vapor

EN 13515
ISO 17699

Insole or cleanliness

Designation of the test  Standard

Colours Resistance to translational friction (wet) 

ISO 17700

Determination of water absorption capacity

EN ISO 22649

Outsole

Designation of the test  Standard

Flex resistance

EN ISO 17707

Flex resistance (small size)

ISO 132

Abrasion resistance

EN 12770
ISO 20871

Determination of density

EN 12770
ISO 20871

Resistance to tensile strength and elongation

EN 12803
ISO 22654

Bonbout

Designation of the test  Standard

Top piece retention strength

EN ISO 19958

Abrasion resistance

EN 12770
ISO 20871

Abrasion resistance

LHOMARGY
CTC method
CTC-P-CH-017

Heel

Designation of the test  Standard

Impact Resistance 

CTC method
CTC-P-CH-016

Accessories

Designation of the test  Standard

Abrasion resistance of shoe laces

ISO 22774

Side opening resistance of zipper

BS 3084
NF G 91005

Aging zips

BS 3084
NF G 91005

Touch and close fasteners shear strength

EN ISO 22777

Accessories tear strength

EN 71-1

Metallic accessories corrosion resistance

CTC méthode
EN ISO 20344

Whole shoe

Designation of the test  Standard

Determination adhesion between outsole and upper

EN ISO 17708

Determination adhesion between midsole and outsole 

EN ISO 17708

Determination of washability in domestic washing machine 

EN ISO 19954

Flex resistance whole shoes (wear simulation) 

CTC Method
CTC-P-CH-004

Performance

Designation of the test  Standard

Shock absorption on the heel (cushioning)

CTC Method
CTC-P-CH-002

Energy return on the heel

CTC Method
CTC-P-CH-007

Determination of the suppleness

CTC Method
CTC-P-CH-008

Assessment of sole correction properties in the heel area (supination/pronation)

CTC Method
CTC-P-CH-006

Impact resistance of stud

CTC Method
CTC-P-CH-016

Determination of the torsional moment in the waist area

CTC Method
CTC-P-CH-003

Assessment of the heel seat side carriage

CTC Method

Heat abrasion resistance

CTC Method
CTC-P-CH-010

Water resistance of footwear

CTC Method
CTC-P-CH-005

Cold insulation

EN ISO 20344

Resistance of outsole after compression cycles (walking) 

CTC Method
CTC-P-CH-018

Resistance of outsole after compression cycles (running)

CTC Method
CTC-P-CH-018

Water vapor permeability of whole footwear

CTC Method
CTC-P-CH-013 

 

Color legend
Mechanical properties Color fastness Hygienic comfort Other

 

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Our laboratory testing services

 

 

Physical tests in practice:

 

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